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Malnutrition is a major issue in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), adversely affecting morbidity, mortality, functional activity and patients’ quality of life. However, what’s the prevalence of malnutrition in kidney disease patients?
Chronic kidney disease, characterized by progressive deterioration of renal function, is a growing problem which has potential public health consequences. As we all know, the kidneys are essential for maintaining many aspects of the metabolic homeostasis. The main functions of kidneys include elimination of waste products, regulation of water, electrolyte and acid-base balance. For chronic kidney disease patients, their kidneys cannot function well, thus resulting in many symptoms.
Then, how does malnutrition occur in CKD patients?
Malnutrition is usually defined as poor nutritional status resulting from poor nutrient intake. In order to protect remaining renal function, patients are usually asked to develop a strict dietary plan. However, complex factors other than inadequate intake are the main cause of the nutritional and metabolic derangement in uremic patients. Decreased intake of protein and calories are the most evident factors. In addition, when CKD progresses into end stage renal disease (ESRD) or Kidney Failure, dialysis may be suggested. However, dialysis can also cause malnutrition directly.
What’s the prevalence of malnutrition in CKD patients?
A high prevalence of malnutrition exists in patients with renal disease. Various studies show signs of malnutrition in 23 to 76% of haemodialysis (HD) patients and 18 to 50 % of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Variations in the prevalence in malnutrition can be attributed to age, case mix, co-morbid conditions and quality of dialysis. The renal population often have a reduced body weight, depleted energy (fat tissues) stores, low levels of albumin and so on.
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